1.1 atha yogānuśāsanam
Now, instruction in the discipline of Yoga.
1.2 yogaḥ cittavṛtti nirodhaḥ
Yoga is restraining the thought-streams natural to the mind.
1.3 tadā draṣṭuḥ svarūpe avasthānam
Then the seer dwells in his own nature.
1.4 vṛtti sārūpyam itaratra
Otherwise he is of the same form as the thought-streams.
1.5 vṛttayaḥ pañcatayyaḥ kliṣṭā akliṣṭāḥ
The thought-streams are five-fold, painful and not painful.
1.6 pramāṇa viparyaya vikalpa nidrā smṛtayaḥ
They are correct perception, incorrect perception, imagination, sleep and memory.
1.7 pratyakṣa anumāna āgamāḥ pramāṇāni
Right knowledge may be come through direct experience, inference, tradition and genuine cognition.
1.8 viparyayo mithyā-jñānam atad rūpa pratiṣṭhaṁ
Wrong knowledge is false, illusory, erroneous beliefs or notions.
1.9 śabda jñānā ‘nupātī vastu-śūnyo vikalpaḥ
Fancy is following after word-knowledge empty of substance.
1.10 abhāva pratyayā ‘laṁbanā vṛttir nidrā
Deep sleep is the modification of the mind which has for its substratum nothingness.
1.11 anubhūta viṣaya asaṁpramoṣaḥ smṛtiḥ
Memory is not allowing mental impressions to escape.
1.12 abhyāsa vairāgyābhyāṁ tannirodhaḥ
These thought-streams are controlled by practice and non-attachment.
1.13 tatra sthitau yatnaḥ abhyāsaḥ
Practice is the effort to secure steadiness.
1.14 sa tu dīrgha kāla nairantarya satkārā ‘ ‘sevito dṛḍhabhūmiḥ
This practice becomes well-grounded when continued with reverent devotion and without interruption over a long period of time.
1.15 dṛṣṭa ānuśravika viṣaya vitṛṣṇasya vaśīkārasaṁjñā vairāgyam
Desirelessness towards the seen and the unseen gives the consciousness of mastery.
1.16 tatparaṁ puruṣakhyāteḥ guṇavaitṛṣṇyam
This is signified by an indifference to the three attributes, due to knowledge of the Indweller.
1.17 vitarka vicāra ānanda asmitārūpa anugamāt saṁprajñātaḥ
Cognitive meditation is accompanied by reasoning, discrimination, bliss and the sense of ‘I am.’
1.18 virāmapratyaya abhyāsapūrvaḥ saṁskāraśeṣaḥ anyaḥ
There is another meditation which is attained by the practice of alert mental suspension until only subtle impressions remain.
1.19 bhavapratyayaḥ videha prakṛtilayānām
For those beings who are formless and for those beings who are merged in unitive consciousness, the world is the cause.
1.20 śraddhā vīrya smṛti samādhiprajñā pūrvakaḥ itareṣām
For others, clarity is preceded by faith, energy, memory and equal minded contemplation.
1.21 tīvrasaṁvegānām āsannaḥ
Equalminded contemplation is nearest to those whose desire is most ardent.
1.22 mṛdu madhya adhimātratvāt tataḥ api viśeṣaḥ
There is further distinction on account of the mild, moderate or intense practice
1.23 Īśvara praṇidhānāt vā
Or by surrender to God.
1.24 kleśa karma vipāka āśayaiḥ aparāmṛṣṭaḥ puruṣaviśeṣaḥ Īśvaraḥ
God is a particular yet universal indweller, untouched by afflictions, actions, impressions and their results.
1.25 tatra niratiśayaṁ sarvajña bījaṁ
In God, the seed of omniscience is unsurpassed.